Legal practitioners have a duty to change the environment and prevent state collapse

December 1st, 2023
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The National Association of Democratic Lawyers (NADEL) held its Annual General Meeting (AGM) and Conference in October 2023. The AGM was kick started by the launch of NADEL’s digital magazine The Progressive Lawyer.

Launch of the magazine and opening of the conference

President of the National Association of Democratic Lawyers (NADEL), Mvuzo Notyesi at the opening of the organisation’s Annual General Meeting and Conference and launch of NADEL’s Journal The Progressive Lawyer that took place on 19 October 2023.

In her welcoming remarks, the Deputy Chairperson of the NADEL Johannesburg Branch, Chantelle Gladwin-Wood, said that the theme of the conference ‘The Regression of Democratic Gains is a Sign of a State Collapse’ and ‘Foregrounding Women in the Legal Sphere and likely Gains,’ focusses on two components, namely of where they come from and where the organisation is headed in the future. She pointed out that looking at history, NADEL needs to know where they come from, what the organisation fought for in order to know where they are going, if they are going in the right direction and what way the organisation is going to take to get there.

Deputy chairperson of the National Association of Democratic Lawyers (NADEL) Johannesburg branch, Chantelle Gladwin-Wood spoke at the opening of the NADEL Annual General Meeting.

Ms Gladwin-Wood said that the possible benefits of the theme of entrenching women in legal spheres and the gains that might be achieved by that, is never ending. She pointed out that she was not speaking at the function to give solutions to the challenges of the state’s collapse, which society has faced. However, she added that in one way or the other everyone has been impacted by the effects of the state’s collapse due to corruption. Whether personally or through a family member who has died due to a dysfunctional government hospital; or those who could not get their accident claims from the Road Accident Fund; or a failed pension fund payment, we all have experienced the state’s collapse.

Ms Gladwin-Wood, however, pointed out that those who feel the pinch of the state’s collapse are the most vulnerable and marginalised in society. She said legal practitioners have a duty to do what they can to change the environment, prevent the state’s collapse and move towards a fairer and just society for all. She asked delegates what NADEL is doing to prevent the state’s collapse? She asked delegates to entrench the right of all persons in South Africa (SA), whether they are male, female, non-binary, or transgender.

Legal practitioner Tembeka Ngcukaitobi SC, addressed delegates at the launch of the National Association of Democratic Lawyers Journal, The Progressive Lawyer. The launch took place on 19 October 2023 in Gauteng.

During the evening of the launch of the magazine, legal practitioner, Tembeka Ngcukaitobi SC, was tasked to discuss the ‘Coalition Government and the Rule of Law: Is Coalition Government a Good Model and what are the Implications for the Rule of Law’. Mr Ngcukaitobi said that the regular government and multi-party system of a democratic government are designed to ensure accountability, responsiveness, and openness. He added that it is a functional provision. ‘We need a multi-party system so that there can be accountability, responsiveness, and openness. Those are the founding values of the South African constitutional order,’ Mr Ngcukaitobi noted.

Mr Ngcukaitobi pointed out that s 2 of the Constitution is often forgotten about. He said that is the section that entrenches the supremacy of the Constitution. He said that there are two components to the supremacy of the Constitution. Mr Ngcukaitobi pointed out that component one, is that conduct that is inconsistent with the Constitution is invalid. He added that, that is what he regards as the negative component of the rule of law. He said put differently it prohibits conduct outside of the Constitution. He pointed out that what people forget is that it also has a positive component, which says the obligations imposed by it must be fulfilled.

Mr Ngcukaitobi said that in the Bill of Rights the critical section for the topic he was discussing, is political rights in s 19, which has three functional provisions. The first being the right to make political choices, the second being the entitlement of every citizen to vote in a free, fair election in a legislative body that has been established in terms of the Constitution. He added that the law in SA has been that in the national and provincial sphere, only political parties as per the provision of the Electoral Act 73 of 1998, only political parties to field candidates to contest in those elections. He pointed out that the challenge that came from a group representing independent candidates stated that the provision is unconstitutional.

Mr Ngcukaitobi said the court said that it is an infringement of s 19(3), which confers a right on any other adult citizen, and any other citizen is distinct from any other political party which is referred to in s 19(1). Every adult citizen has a right to stand for public office and if elected to hold office. He said that will have implications in the future. He pointed out that the implication is decision making. That is how the decision is going to be made in provincial legislature and how decisions are to be made in Parliament. Mr Ngcukaitobi said that the Constitution does address this question. He pointed out that decision making is to be made on the basis of a majority rule, whenever there is a disputed issue, that issue will be dealt with by a majority vote.

Mr Ngcukaitobi said that majoritarianism has its own advantages and disadvantages. He added that the reason majoritarianism is adopted, people assume that it is legitimate, because it is supported by more people. He said that the one function that majoritarianism serves its legitimation, it gives the decision. He added that that is distinguishable from whether or not the decision is correct, but it is legitimate because it has been taken by the majority of the people.

Conference

The Deputy Judge President of the Gauteng Division of the High Court, Judge Aubrey Ledwaba at the launch of the National Association of Democratic Lawyers Journal The Progressive Lawyer.

On 20 October 2023, Deputy Judge President of the Gauteng Division of the High Court, Judge Aubrey Ledwaba delivered the welcome and opening remarks to the delegates who attended the NADEL conference, which included Legal Services Ombud, Judge Siraj Desai, President of the Supreme Court of Appeal, Judge Betty Molemela and Judge Mbuyiseli Madlanga.

During the messages of support session, a representative from the Pan African Bar Association of South Africa (PABASA), Salome Manganye, said NADEL has a very important and special part to play in the PABASA journey. She pointed out that when PABASA was formed, NADEL played a significant role with regard to funding the establishment of PABASA. She added that NADEL and PABASA stand for the same ideals and that NADEL has a seat on the board of the Pius Langa School of Advocacy at PABASA. She said that NADEL is still playing a role in shaping legal practitioners that will form part of the future and one day be seating judges and senior legal practitioners in the profession.

The LSSA supports the objectives of NADEL

The Deputy President of the Law Society of South Africa, Matshego Ramagaga gave a message of support at the National Association of Democratic Lawyers AGM.

The Vice President of the Law Society of South Africa (LSSA), Matshego Ramagaga said that the LSSA supports the objectives of NADEL and where necessary also collaborates with NADEL. She added that NADEL is privileged and honoured to have descended from great giants such as, the late Justice Dullah Omar, the late Chief Justice Pius Langa, Justice Dumisa Ntsebeza SC and many others. ‘When you find yourself descending from such great giants, it becomes a duty and an obligation upon you to try and emulate those giants,’ Ms Ramagaga said.

Ms Ramagaga pointed out that at the time the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development was appointed in the democratic South Africa, ‘we were not trained to take office in the political sphere. But what he did, upon taking office was to establish a team that would look to the transformation of the administration of justice’. She said that the late Mr Omar took office in 1994 and in 1995 the task team was in place. Ms Ramagaga added that the task team did not sleep on the job but produced the famous document known as Justice Vision 2000, which was launched in 1997. Ms Ramagaga pointed out that it was Mr Omar’s dream that the document would have almost been implemented in full by 2002. ‘Today we are still struggling to implement that document. It is a straightforward document that talks to transformation within the justice environment. His dream was to have one profession, which will have different branches of practice,’ Ms Ramagaga said.

Ms Ramagaga pointed out that on paper there is one profession, which is regulated by the Legal Practice Act 28 of 2014 (LPA). However, she said that when one looks deeper to what is happening in the legal profession, there is no willingness and deliberateness to try to fuse the two branches of the legal profession. Ms Ramagaga challenged NADEL and the BLA, as well as other organisations in the legal profession to try and make sure Mr Omar’s dream comes true. Ms Ramagaga pointed out that in the legal profession the word ‘transformation’ is loosely used to a point that the meaning of the word has cheapened. She said that when one talks about transformation, they should start by looking internally and say ‘am I prepared to shift from my position of comfort?’ She added that if one is not prepared to shift from the position of comfort, ‘then what you are saying is that I am a proponent of transformation, I am an advocate of transformation, but I am not an agent of transformation’. She pointed out that if the profession is going to have proponents, the advocates, but not the agents of transformation who make sure that transformation happens, then it remains just but a word on paper. She said the profession should make sure that it gives true meaning to the word transformation through actions.

The BLA is with NADEL in the battle for transformation

The Black Lawyers Association’s President Bayethe Maswazi gave a message of support at the National Association of Democratic Lawyers AGM and conference in Gauteng.

The President of the Black Lawyers Association (BLA), Bayethe Maswazi in his message of support said that the BLA is with and has always been with NADEL in the battle for transformation in the legal profession and the judiciary. He said that the quality of democracy in any nation, will be reflected by the quality of the wisdom of the people of that nation in their preparedness to invest in that democracy. ‘At this moment we ought to ask ourselves what level of quality of wisdom that has been invested in the South African democracy. And if we find that the wisdom is low, that will explain the extent to which we have degenerated as a country in every social illness,’ Mr Maswazi noted.

Mr Maswazi added that legal practitioners are important for constitutional democracy and democracies in general. He said that legal practitioners are the ones who appear in court to petition various legal outcomes and judges determine the true meaning of the law. He added that for that reason the profession needs to invest its wisdom in producing legal practitioners that will answer the most important demands made by the Constitution. Mr Maswazi said that delegates should use the NADEL conference to renew the vows to the marriage, to the idea of a transformed legal profession and a transformed judiciary. ‘In our experiences at the hand that we have held together as NADEL, we have no doubt as the BLA that you will continue what you have always done by holding our hands as we execute the important task of transforming our judiciary and our profession. As we say in the BLA, we want a better profession for a better judiciary, in order to achieve a better society,’ Mr Maswazi added.

Messages of support from other stakeholders

Board member of the Legal Practitioners’ Fidelity Fund (LPFF), CJ Ntsoane spoke on behalf of the LPFF at the National Association of Democratic Lawyers AGM.

A representative of the Legal Practitioners’ Fidelity Fund (LPFF), CJ Ntsoane, said that at the LPFF they have experienced transformation through the President of NADEL, Mvuzo Notyesi, that when he talks of transformation, he includes women and affords opportunities to young and upcoming legal practitioners. He congratulated NADEL on their conference and added that after the robust discussion NADEL will come up with fruitful resolutions.

Council Member at the Legal Practice Council, Busani Mabunda, gave a message of support to the National Association of Democratic Lawyers delegates at their AGM and conference.

Legal Practice Council (LPC), Council Member Busani Mabunda, said that the process of getting to the LPA was a long journey, through various ministers, including the late NADEL founding member Dullah Omar. He pointed out that the process was vigorous, even to the extent of making presentations in Parliament. He said that it is very important and pivotal for people who have a clear understanding of where the country and the legal profession is headed to participate to protect structures of governance of the legal profession.

Other messages of support were from the Ambassador of Venezuela, HE Mairin Moreno-Merida and HE Enrique Orta Gonzalez Ambassador of Cuba. Cuba’s representative openly spoke about the growing concern of the violent attacks to Palestine people by Israel. The representatives called for the violence and killing to end on both ends.

NADEL played a key role in the struggle for democracy

The Minister of Justice and
Correctional Services,
Ronald Lamola spoke about the ‘Regression of Democratic Gains is a sign of a State Collapse’, on
20 October 2023 at the National
Association of Democratic Lawyers
AGM and Conference.

In his address, Minister of Justice and Correctional Services, Ronald Lamola, said that NADEL has played a key role in the struggle for democracy in SA. He added that the organisation has also been a catalyst in the enactment of the LPA. He noted the theme of the conference ‘The regression of democratic gains is a sign of a state collapse’ should also gauge if the legal profession has lived up to the object of the LPA.

Mr Lamola said for him to answer the question posed by the theme, he will have to take stock of the road travelled in the prosecution of the National Democratic Revolution since the democratic breakthrough in 1994. He began by saying that he wants to acknowledge the challenges the country faces in the provision of water and electricity, the challenges of crime, a stagnant economy, and joblessness. The role played by COVID-19 in the devastation of the economy and the July 2021 unrest that took place in the country, loadshedding and the natural disasters that happened in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape.

Mr Lamola shared some of the statistics by a census survey, and said that despite the challenges faced in the country, SA is a resilient nation. He pointed out that the latest population and housed count in SA since the end of Apartheid paints a picture of a remarkable progress over the past 29 years. He added that it is important to note that SA’s development has been intentional and systemic, with well-designed developmental programs implemented since 1994. He added that the progress is impressive, particularly in areas related to education, clean water, electricity, sanitation, and refuse removal. He said that the Census 2022 shows that 82,4% of households now have access to piped water inside their dwelling or yard, and 70,8% of people have access to a flushing toilet.

The Executive Officer of Legal
Practice Council, Charity Nzuza and
Chief Executive Officer of SADC LA,
Stanley Nyamanhindi attended the National Association of Democratic Lawyers AGM and Conference.

Mr Lamola said that the impressive improvements also pose significant challenges to service delivery and essential infrastructure capacity. He added that the Census 2022 results make it clear that the future of SA is bright, but there is still a long way to go. Mr Lamola looked closer at the judiciary and the legal profession. He pointed out that in 1994 there were 165 judges, and of that 165, 160 were white males, three were black males and two were white females. Today there are 249 judges in active services, 93 are black males, 84 are black females and 45 are white males and 31 are white female judges. He added that there are also black females in the leadership of the judiciary, namely, the Deputy Chief Justice of the country, Mandisa Maya, the President of the Supreme Court of Appeal, Betty Molemela, the Judge President of the KwaZulu-Natal Division of the High Court, Thoba Poyo-Dlwati, the Judge President of Mpumalanga Division of the High Court, Sheila Mphahlele, to name a few. Turning to magistrates of the 1 652 magistrates in SA, 52% are female and 74% are black. He said that these are self-evident gains that must be advance even further to aspire to achieve the objectives of the Constitution.

Mr Lamola pointed out that the LPA established the LPC to become the country’s sole and ultimate statutory body to regulate the affairs and the conduct of legal practitioners, and to set the relevant norms and standards. He added that today more and more young black aspirant legal practitioners continue to enter the legal profession. And this was part of Justice Vision 2000 published by the former minister Dullah Omar.

Mr Lamola pointed out that in September 2023 after consulting the LPC, he signed a draft Guidelines for consideration by the President as he exercises his powers and prerogative when considering the granting of Silk status. He said that the draft Guidelines are currently being considered by the legal services unit in the Presidency, and soon, the country will have certainty about the process of allocation of senior status for legal practitioners. He added that in brief, distinct from the past, ‘we propose that even attorneys qualify for honours which if approved, will be conferred as ‘Senior Legal Practitioner’. He said that this is also a product of consultation with the profession.

National Association of Democratic Lawyers National Executive Members Eunice Masipa and Zincedile Tiya
at the organisation’s AGM and
conference held in Gauteng.

Mr Lamola spoke about the Office of the State Attorney. He said that government and the State Attorney have set targets for briefs given to women advocates. ‘We have three targets when it comes to measuring briefing patterns. We set a target of 40% of briefs allocated to female legal practitioners and we achieved 42%.’

Mr Lamola touched on the Masters’ office. He said that the department is on the course to digitise the Masters’ services and they have started with the online services for deceased estates. He pointed out that the department has collaborated with First National Bank in this regard, and they provided pro bono services, this will be extended to all the Masters’ services.

Mr Lamola said that the department will soon convene all stakeholders for the Masters’ services, for the legal profession to provide suggestions on the challenges the Masters’ office is facing. He added that the department will request the legal profession to extend pro bono services to the Masters’ offices countrywide. The department will soon announce the mechanism for the profession to do it.

Mr Lamola said that he was certain that NADEL has taken note of the unspeakable atrocities, which are being meted out against the people of Palestine. He added that international law needs to be enforced in the Israel-Palestine conflict. He pointed out that it is essential to denounce any violent actions by either party. He added that the oppressive nature of Israel’s occupation has created a divisive environment, depriving the Palestinian people of their right to self-determination. Mr Lamola said that to achieve peace and justice for all parties involved, human rights must be prioritised, including the inalienable right to self-determination. He said this requires a dismantling of Israel’s settler-colonial occupation and an end to apartheid practices.

NADEL’s President Report

Legal practitioner Dali Mpofu and the Legal Ombudsman,
Judge Siraj Desai at the National Association of Democratic Lawyers
AGM and Conference.

In his president report, the President of NADEL, Mvuzo Notyesi, said the conference was timely and relevant because it will help the conference to contextualise the cause of the decline in service delivery within the local municipalities and consequently the regression of the democratic gains they have fought for, to look at practical ways to minimise the effects, and to develop a plan which can easily and sustainably be implemented and foregrounding women as the country commemorate 100 years of women in law. Mr Notyesi added that NADEL recognises that building an Africa, the task will demand a collective tackle of societal socio-economic challenges.

Mr Ntoyesi said that this year’s conference has chosen as its themes ‘The Regression of Democratic Gains is a Sign of State Collapse;’ and ‘Foregrounding Women in the Legal Sphere and likely Gains’. It is a reflection on the absolute need to look to the future. It is immensely valuable to come together, to discuss the challenges we face, and to leave with answers to those challenges. Our identity as African leaders is deeply rooted in our connection and commitment to a better South Africa for all.’

Mr Notyesi added that NADEL is grateful to Mr Lamola, the judiciary, and the legal fraternity for the continued support of the aims and objectives of NADEL.

Mr Notyesi also publicly condemned the brutal retaliatory actions of the Israeli army upon the civilian population of Gaza. Mr Notyesi said that ‘NADEL views the resistance by Hamas in Gaza in the context of a struggle for Palestinian freedom, equality, and justice against the violation of human rights of the Palestinian people. NADEL recognises the right of the Palestinian people to rise and resist the occupation and brutality of the Israeli government. The NADEL President reaffirmed NADEL’s support for the struggle of the Palestinian people. In this regard, the NADEL Constitution commits NADEL members in building international relations and international solidarity in defence of human rights.’

Breakaway sessions at the conference

Constitutional Court Judge,
Mbuyiseli Madlanga spoke about the importance of legal education,
effective legal writing and advocacy skills at the National
Association of Democratic Lawyers AGM and Conference.

The conference also had breakaway sessions by various speakers including Justice Madlanga who spoke on the topic of legal education that is infused with a transformative constitution. He said that he chose the topic because of the Vodacom (Pty) Ltd v Makate and Another (GP) (unreported case no 57882/2019, 15-9-2023) (Ledwaba DJP) case. He pointed out that the matter started as an intellectual property (IP) matter, which related to the creation of the ‘Please Call Me’ platform. He said that because the matter started as an IP  matter, it is unsurprising that one of the leading legal practitioners in IP, not only in SA but also internationally, Cedric Puckrin, ran the matter from the High Court, however, when it came to the Constitutional Court (CC), he had the wisdom of being led by a senior counsel who by far is junior to him. He added that it made sense, because even though he held the knowledge of IP law, litigating in the CC is something foreign to him.

Justice Madlanga said that the importance of legal education is essential to uphold the Constitution. He pointed out that SA has journeyed from Apartheid to democracy is a testament to the power of law as an instrument for social change. ‘Our Constitution hailed as one of the most progressive in the world is a backdrop upon with our new nation stands,’ Justice Madlanga said. He, however, added that a Constitution, no matter how visionary, is only as strong as those who understand, interpret and apply it. Justice Madlanga pointed out that this is where legal education comes in, by equipping individuals with an upskilled understanding of the law. ‘We ensure that our democratic foundations remain robust and resilient,’ Justice Madlanga added.

Justice Madlanga said that legal education finds expression in and among two broad imperatives, the education of lay persons in the country’s fundamental laws and the way law students are taught law and their preparedness to enter the legal profession. He added that education in general brings knowledge and knowledge brings access to different parts of life and the world that one would otherwise not be exposed to. He said that providing legal knowledge to lay people, creates access to the country’s body of law for the public. He pointed out why this is important, as Professor James Boyd White put it, ‘knowledge of the law is like knowledge of a language’. The more one understands it, the more likely they are to actually put it to use in order to ‘speak coherently about what we call justice’.

Deputy president of the National
Association of Democratic Lawyers,
(NADEL) Machini Motloung at the Pius Langa memorial lecture and dinner held by NADEL on 21 October 2023. (Picture supplied.)

Justice Madlanga referred to what the late Chief Justice Pius Langa’s words that say, ‘the way we teach law students and the values and philosophies we instil in them will define the legal landscape of the future.’ He added that this necessitates constant change from a conservative culture of legal interpretation that so characterises legal education during Apartheid – which was based on formal legal reasoning and to open a culture of substantive legal reasoning – that directly peruses SA’s Constitutions transformative values. He pointed out that the Constitution was adapted as a tool to transform SA from a segregated country to one where equality and dignity prevailed, he said by equality he means substantive equality not formal equality.

The Fourth Annual Pius Langa Memorial Lecture

Politician and legal practitioner,
Dr Mathews Phosa, delivered the
Pius Langa memorial lecture
and dinner hosted by the National
Association of Democratic
Lawyers in Gauteng on
21 October 2023.

Dr Mathews Phosa delivered the Fourth Annual Pius Langa Memorial Lecture at the NADEL dinner. In his address said that he was asked to speak about a man that he knew very well. He pointed out that the lecture is a celebration of a great man, a great mind. However, he unfortunately said that the celebration is happening when the world is witnessing a great war. He said that the war is tragic and there is nothing new in the war. He pointed out that innocent bystanders are becoming victims in a conflict where there can be no winners. He added that one of the lessons he was taught is that war brings out the worst in a person, one has to be brutal.

Dr Phosa said that the former Chief Justice Pius Langa became known for his measured approach to judgments. His approach to life and issues and his carefully worded views with a strong measure of ubuntu, and also encouraging his esteemed colleagues on the highest Bench to do the right thing. He pointed out that he made a measurable contribution towards a much more inclusive legal profession. He said that he was in his Convention for a Democratic South Africa team, and he would not be like others, instead he was the quiet measured voice all the time. He added that they had a team from the African National Congress, which was doing the final drafting. He pointed out that today as the country see the Constitution as it stands today, it was what Justice Langa, and the team drafted.

Dr Phosa said that today there are many global leaders who are quick to take harsh actions and judgment, and even quicker to choose sides and encourage those in war, to engage in battle. He said leaders could do much more reflecting like Justice Langa did and do the right things without rushing into positions and casting stones. He pointed out that what he did was leadership. He said that history has taught that in every conflict there are rights and wrongs and often, however, difficult it is to stomach on both sides there are right and wrongs. He pointed out that when reflecting on the global turbulence and as well as SA’s own fragile democracy, he is reminded of the biblical truth ‘blessed are the peacemakers’.

Dr Phosa said ‘blessed’ in his view are those who attempt to find win-win solutions, where others throw the stones of conflicts even higher. When the centre is struggling to hold as in the case with both international communities and here in SA, ‘it is always the peacemakers who shape our destiny away from conflict, war, division and hatred’. He pointed out that Justice Langa is that peacemaker and his story reflected one of struggle, determination, a leader who will put the past behind him and dedicate his life to building a better more balanced society.

National Association of Democratic Lawyers delegates at the Pius Langa
memorial lecture and dinner.

Dr Phosa added that Mr Langa rose above bitterness, from poverty and long hours of sweating at a factory, he studied for long hours, day and night to eventually become the second Chief Justice in the democratic SA. He added that the architects of the hard-fought democracy, including the late Chief Justice Langa would not be proud of the state of both the country and the legal fraternity. He pointed out that recent developments have shown that the ground between the legislative and executive branch on the one side and the judiciary on the other side have deepened and the constitutionally imbedded respect between them is slowly being wangled away.

Dr Phosa said for example the Zondo Commission depicted a framework on how to redesign and corrected the obvious flows on both executive branches, as well as the legislative branch. However, he pointed out that very little has come out of it and the reaction to it in the face of the corrective proposal has resulted in hardly anything more than a token action. He added not even one minister, or deputy minister who was mentioned in that commission is standing trial. He said that it is a shocking state of affairs that three arms of state are at serious fault with one another. He added that the people have lost confidence in politics and politicians, which is a sad thing because this democracy is too young. He pointed out that the cancer of public sector corruption is growing despite the many promises to clear up the shameful legacy of state capture. He said that the power of the judiciary to act as an independent arbiter in a decisive manner is being undermined by the fact that the current government is more than willing to look the other way, when they should in fact support judicial reports and findings.

National Association of Democratic Lawyers delegates at the Pius Langa
memorial lecture and dinner.

Dr Phosa said that Justice Langa was a leader and a peacemaker. He added that he was a jurist who understood that justice and restitution should be tempered with mercy. He pointed out that Justice Langa understood SA’s precious democracy should be viewed in the spirit of ubuntu, honesty, integrity, and leadership. He added that the legal fraternity should mobilise all members to shape the future of the country in such a way that it is a better future for all. He concluded that the responsibility of shaping a better future and rejecting what is not acceptable is in the hands of all people.

Kgomotso Ramotsho Cert Journ (Boston) Cert Photography (Vega) is the news reporter at De Rebus.

This article was first published in De Rebus in 2023 (Dec) DR 8.

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